An Encyclopedia of Air Conditioning – Part 1

At Carlton, we pride ourselves in being experts on all things air conditioning. In this, the first of a two part A-Z of air conditioning, we present an informative and interesting mini encyclopedia of everything you need to know.

Air Conditioning

Air conditioning

A is for Air Conditioning. Air conditioning (often referred to as A/C, Aircon, or AC) is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature and humidity) to more comfortable conditions, typically with the aim of distributing the conditioned air to an occupied space such as a building or a vehicle to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality. In common use, an air conditioner is a device that removes heat from the air inside a building or vehicle, thus lowering the air temperature. The cooling is typically achieved through a refrigeration cycle.


Buffalo air con

B is for Buffalo, New York, birthplace of the modern air conditioning unit. It was here in 1902 that the first modern electrical air conditioning unit was invented by Willis Carrier. After graduating from Cornell University, Carrier found a job at the Buffalo Forge Company. While there, he began experimenting with air conditioning as a way to solve an application problem for the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Company in Brooklyn, New York. The first air conditioner, designed and built in Buffalo by Carrier, began working on 17 July 1902. It was not long before its popularity became widespread, but only in the post war economic boom did its popularity reach the levels still seen today.

Ceiling Cassette

Air Con Ceiling Cassette

C is for ceiling cassette. A ceiling cassette is a discreet and quiet air conditioning system ideal for installation in any room with a suspended ceiling, typically offices and commercial premises. They can often be used for both heating and cooling, making them a universal solution.

Ducted Systems

Air con Ducted Systems

D is for Ducted System. Ducted air conditioning systems are designed to be completely concealed. They are a versatile and well used residential / commercial air conditioning system that is both discreet and effective. They are typically low noise, and units are designed to be easily concealed, for example within a suspended ceiling. Click here to see the ducted systems currently available from Carlton Sales.

Energy Consumption

air con Energy consumption

E is for Energy Consumption. When planning or purchasing any air conditioning installation, energy consumption is usually a high priority, as this will have a significant impact on the long term running cost of your installation. Whether you are buying a new system for the first time or replacing an existing installation, it is worth consulting an expert such as those at Carlton to come up with the most efficient solution for your circumstances. Consider investing in certified green products, which are not only cheaper to run but also offer tax incentives to make the initial investment even more affordable.


F is for Fujitsu. Founded in 1935, the brand is perhaps best known for its work in the IT sector rather than elsewhere. Fujitsu do, however, manufacture a range of air conditioning products to suit various needs and budgets including ceiling cassettes, wall mounted systems for home and office use and floor mounted systems.

Green Products

air con green

G is for Green Products. At Carlton, we are committed to the environment and put our green products along with a responsible, sustainable approach to service at the centre of our offer. Green products are not just environmentally friendly – they are also cash flow friendly with the reduced operating costs and eligibility for the Enhanced Capital Allowance Scheme, which means your company can benefit from 100% capital allowance on eligible products.

We stock a comprehensive range of green products – including air conditioning – available through the Carlton Sales website. Simply look for the logo below, or to make things even simpler, browse the Eco Products section of our website where we have already curated all the qualifying products.


H is for HVAC – Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, the technology of indoor environmental comfort, an important aspect of commercial space. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality to meet the needs of staff and customers, as well as complying with the law.

Air Conditioning systems play a key role in HVAC and often serve for both heating and cooling. The law requires all HVAC systems to undergo regular inspection and cleaning cycles by qualified engineers. At Carlton, our engineers can look after all of your installation and maintenance needs.


ice air con

I is for Ice. Given that air conditioning is based on the same principle as refrigeration, it should come as no surprise to learn that it was the discovery of an artificial way to create ice was the cornerstone of the modern air conditioning system.

In 1842, Florida physician John Gorrie used compressor technology to create ice, which he used to cool air for his patients in his hospital in Apalachicola, Florida. He hoped to eventually use his ice-making machine to regulate the temperature of buildings. He even envisioned centralized air conditioning that could cool entire cities.

It was at least partly Gorrie’s early adventures into temperature management that led to Willis Carrier’s successful development of the concept into a working solution.

John Hadley

J is for John Hadley, a British chemist who, working with Benjamin Franklin in 1758, discovered that the principle of evaporation could be used to achieve the rapid cooling of objects. The research, conducted at cambridge University, was another key milestone in the development of air conditioning as we know it today and led Hadley and Franklin to the conclusion that “From this experiment one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day”. No doubt more than a few office workers have entertained the same conclusion over the years.

Kilowatt hours

air con Kilowatt

K is for Kilowatt Hour (kWh), a measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power consumption of one thousand watts for one hour. Both domestic and commercial energy usage is typically billed in kilowatt hours – the more you use, the more you pay.

When it comes to air conditioning, there are various ways to reduce the amount they contribute to your electricity bills. Firstly, choosing equipment that is optimum for the expected use and as energy efficient as possible will help greatly. Ensuring the system is properly serviced at the right intervals by professionally trained engineers will also significantly help to maintain long term efficiency.


LG Electronics was established in 1958 and has since led the way into the advanced digital era thanks to the technological expertise acquired by manufacturing a wide range of appliances including not only consumer electronics such as televisions and radios, but also refrigeration and air conditioning solutions. Thier venture into the cooling business started in 1965 with the production of Korea’s first refrigerator and has continued to develop ever since.

LG now offer a range of air conditioning products including comparatively priced wall mounted systems that can both heat and cool such as the economy range LG E09EL.NSH.

If you are looking for something more stylish, the Artcool range offers an attractive alternative that looks great in every setting, such as the A12LL.NSN pictured below.


M is for Mitsubishi Electric, another producer of air conditioning equipment. The Mitsubishi Zen range is a wall mounted system that blends energy efficiency with a sophisticated, streamlined design. Combining an impressively low power consumption with a quiet, yet powerful performance, units have a distinctively styled front panel that not only looks appealing, but also helps to make cleaning of the unit easier.

Designed to complement modern interior décor and suitable for a wide range of applications, Zen units blend in naturally wherever they are installed and are available in three striking colours; black, silver and white.

Mitsubishi Electric also offer a wide range of floor mounted, wall mounted and ceiling cassette units to suit a range of commercial premises and budgets. Click here to browse the full range of air conditioning equipment from Mitsubishi.

At Carlton, we have years of experience in providing the very best in sales and service for all things air conditioning. Our experienced and highly qualified team is in the perfect position to offer you advice on both buying and maintaining equipment, and can also offer you advice on improving energy consumption. Find your local branch here, or contact us online now using our convenient contact form.

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